Binary Options 101 - An Introduction to Binary Options

Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Swaps* (*But Were Afraid To Ask)

Hello, dummies
It's your old pal, Fuzzy.
As I'm sure you've all noticed, a lot of the stuff that gets posted here is - to put it delicately - fucking ridiculous. More backwards-ass shit gets posted to wallstreetbets than you'd see on a Westboro Baptist community message board. I mean, I had a look at the daily thread yesterday and..... yeesh. I know, I know. We all make like the divine Laura Dern circa 1992 on the daily and stick our hands deep into this steaming heap of shit to find the nuggets of valuable and/or hilarious information within (thanks for reading, BTW). I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great.
What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just... wrong. Like, fucking your cousin wrong. And to be clear, I mean the fucking your *first* cousin kinda wrong, before my Southerners in the back get all het up (simmer down, Billy Ray - I know Mabel's twice removed on your grand-sister's side). Truly, I try to let it slide. I do my bit to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. But out of all of those tens of thousands of misguided, autistic attempts at understanding the world of high finance, one thing gets so consistently - so *emphatically* - fucked up and misunderstood by you retards that last night I felt obligated at the end of a long work day to pull together this edition of Finance with Fuzzy just for you. It's so serious I'm not even going to make a u/pokimane gag. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post.
That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets - spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit. Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way.
We're going to break it down like this. (1) "What's a hedge, Fuzzy?" (2) Common Hedging Strategies and (3) All About ISDAs and Credit Default Swaps.
Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back (and anyone else who needs to hear this up front) - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis. If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy.
TL;DR? Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next 5-7 minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle.
Ready? Let's get started.
1. The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life
The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome. One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? Good. A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third outcome. If you hedged against the possibility of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows:
Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself.
Congratulations. You just finished Hedging 101. "But Fuzzy, that's easy! I just sold a naked call against my 95% OTM put! I'm adequately hedged!". Spoiler alert: you're not (although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below). What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy. That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part.
You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro (specific exposure) risks, and macro (trend exposure) risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus.
That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically. In wallstreetbets terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too. The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions. The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it.
Anyway. Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets?
2. A Hedging Taxonomy
The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against? Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. (1) You have commodity risk for the shit you buy or the shit you use. (2) You have currency risk for the money you borrow. (3) You have rate risk on the debt you carry. (4) You have offtake risk for the shit you sell. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. I might write about some of the more complicated ones in a later post if people are interested (CDO/CLOs, strip/stack hedges and bond swaps with option toggles come to mind) but let's stick to the basics for now.
(i) Swaps
A swap is one of the most common forms of hedge instrument, and they're used by pretty much everyone that can afford them. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine. This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one.
Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties (before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only). They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. "Wait, Fuzz; slow down! What do you mean sets of cash flows?". Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered.
The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. One leg is fixed - a set payment that's the same every time it gets paid - and the other is variable - it fluctuates (typically indexed off the price of the underlying risk that you are speculating on / protecting against). You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts. If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game.
I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade. Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise! - the rate gets better after you borrow. Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money (a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits). Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap. If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. Win-win! Or, at least, Lose Less / Lose Less. That's the name of the game in hedging.
There are many different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation. The valuation of swaps is also super interesting but I guarantee you that 99% of you won't understand it so I'm not going to try and explain it here although I encourage you to google it if you're interested.
Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA (dsicussed below) but the confirms themselves (the individual swaps) are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a 10-K, though. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. Top tip: This is occasionally something worth checking in credit agreements when you invest in businesses that are debt issuers - being able to do this increases the risk profile significantly and is particularly important in times of economic volatility (ctrl+f "non-speculative" in the credit agreement to be sure).
(ii) Forwards
A forward is a contract made today for the future delivery of an asset at a pre-agreed price. That's it. "But Fuzzy! That sounds just like a futures contract!". I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant. I'm not going to go into super boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me.
Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges (see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick for some more color on this). In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways.
People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made (or take delivery of the thing they need). If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made (and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery). If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances.
These contracts are incredibly byzantine (and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers). In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I (i) do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle (ii) do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and (iii) love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them.
(iii) Collars
No, not the kind your wife is encouraging you to wear try out to 'spice things up' in the bedroom during quarantine. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable to WSB. Collars deal with options! Hooray!
To execute a basic collar (also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes), you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies (you can only profit up to the strike price of the call) but also writes down your risk. If you screen large volume trades with a VOL/OI of more than 3 or 4x (and they're not bullshit biotech stocks), you can sometimes see these being constructed in real time as hedge funds protect themselves on their shorts.
(3) All About ISDAs, CDS and Synthetic CDOs
You may have heard about the mythical ISDA. Much like an indenture (discussed in my post on $F), it's a magic legal machine that lets you build swaps via trade confirms with a willing counterparty. They are very complicated legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master (which is a form agreement that's always the same) and a Schedule (which amends the Master to include your specific terms). They are also the engine behind just about every major credit crunch of the last 10+ years.
First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA.
Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? Right. So. You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early 2000s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire.
Here's how it works. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg . And you write in... whatever you want. A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period... whatever. Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money. And banks... don't like calling in loans or forcing bankruptcies. Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking?
Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt (loans or bonds). They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the 2000s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in 2008. This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. "OH!", the people cried. "Look at those big bad bankers buying up subprime loans! They caused this!". Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt. They're synthetic because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular (and remain so) is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain. The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama.
Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt (something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now). This happens in three different ways. (1) Investors who previously were long on the debt hedge their position by selling CDS protection on the underlying, putting downward pressure on the debt price. (2) Investors who previously shorted the debt switch to buying CDS protection because the relatively illiquid debt (partic. when its a bond) trades at a discount below par compared to the CDS. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. (3) The delta in price and actual value of the debt tempts some investors to become NBTs (neg basis traders) who long the debt and purchase CDS protection. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can take leverage (which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position), they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Anyway. Enough technical details.
I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today (it's also terribly taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live). But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here.
Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post.
*EDIT 1\* In a total blowout, $PLAY won. So it's D&B time next week. Post will drop Monday at market open.
submitted by fuzzyblankeet to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Results of First Official /r/Chihayafuru Survey

On May 3rd, 2020, a survey was conducted on /Chihayafuru. This was the first official survey held in the community, the results of which can be found here.
A total of 173 people responded over the 10 days this survey was open.
Wiki Post with easy navigation
/Chihayafuru's Favourite Shoujo and Josei Anime/Manga
/Chihayafuru's Favourite Anime and Manga (excluding Shoujo and Josei)

Demographics

Age Demographics

Age Range Percentage (Number)
25-34 years old 38.4% (66)
20-24 years old 34.9% (60)
17-19 years old 16.9% (29)
35+ years old 5.8% (10)
12-16 years old 3.5% (6)
Under 12 years old 0.6% (1)
A total of 172 people responded to this question. The results are surprising, to say the least. The median age trends much higher than that of other anime communities with most people being in their 20's and 30's. We have a decent number of teenagers but most people here are adults.

Gender Demographics

Gender Percentage (Number)
Male 56.6% (98)
Female 41% (71)
Prefer not to say 1.2% (2)
Non-binary 0.6% (1)
Agender 0.6% (1)
All survey respondents answered this question. The male majority was expected since reddit is predominantly male. Still, the somewhat balanced demographics are refreshing to see considering most communities are far more skewed towards male (/anime is 85%+ male for instance) although our numbers may be lower.

Country Demographics

Country Percentage (Number)
United States 38.8% (64)
India 6.7% (11)
Philippines 6.1% (10)
United Kingdom 5.5% (9)
Canada 5.5% (9)
Germany 3% (5)
Brazil 3% (5)
Australia 3% (5)
France 1.8% (3)
Sweden 1.8% (3)
Norway 1.8% (3)
Malaysia 1.8% (3)
Other 21.2% (35)
165 people answered this question. There's an even split between NA and other timezones. Roughly half the community lives in NA while the other half is divided between other regions. A surprising amount of people come from SEA regions.

Chihayafuru Related

When did you first get into Chihayafuru?

Answer Percentage (Number)
Between 2013 and 2018 (before Season 3 announcement) 38.2% (66)
Between 2018 and 2019 (before Season 3 aired but after it was announced) 16.8% (29)
Around/before Season 1 started airing in 2011 12.7% (22)
While Season 3 was airing 12.1% (21)
After Season 3 had ended 12.1% (21)
Between 2011 and 2013 (before Season 2 aired) 4.6% (8)
While Season 2 was airing in 2013 3.5% (6)
All survey respondents answered this question. Considering that 72.8% of our users have been watching anime for longer than 5 years, it makes sense that many of them would get into it so early considering its status as a sleeper hit and older fans' willingness to check out less mainstream anime. Many people seem to have picked it up after the Season 3 announcement, likely owing to seasonal culture becoming more widely adopted. Overall, we seem to have quite the mix of veteran and new fans.

Which of these made you watch Chihayafuru?

Answer Number
I watched it without much outside influence 70
Fan response/discussion on /anime or other forums 33
The MyAnimeList score 31
That one ProZD Video 29
Recommendation/Gift from friends/others 25
Anime Youtubers/AniTube in general 12
Ads and Promotions on Streaming Services 7
170 people answered this question. It was the first question where you could write-in an answer. Most write-in answers were grouped together since many people mentioned various blogs/websites which were grouped into "fan response" while people who found it on their own regardless of why they were looking for it were grouped into "watched without much outside influence." As a result, that answer dominates because as Chihayafuru isn't a major topic in other online communities, many people end up discovering it on their own whether they're looking for sports, josei or romance.

How have you watched the Chihayafuru anime?

Answer Percentage (Number)
Illegal streaming/torrenting/sailing the high seas 59% (98)
Legal streaming 55.4% (92)
Physical BDs/DVDs 4.2% (7)
166 people answered this question. More than half have streamed Chihayafuru legally although many of them have pirated it on occasion. Only 7 people own the physical BDs/DVDs.

Which of these translations do you prefer for the Chihayafuru anime?

Answer Percentage (Number)
I don't favour one or the other 50.9% (83)
Official Translation 31.3% (51)
Fan translation by Commie 17.2% (28)
Other 0.6% (1)
163 people answered this question. Aside from people that don't favour either translation, it's strange that so many prefer the official translation when Commie goes above and beyond with typesetting, translating signs and karaoke. Either way, it seems like people have issues with Commie's work or they have not checked it out and prefer the translation on Crunchyroll.

Which season of Chihayafuru is your favourite?

Answer Percentage (Number)
I don't have a favourite 29.1% (50)
Season 3 27.3% (47)
Season 2 22.1% (38)
Season 1 12.2% (21)
My favourite season is still unadapted 9.3% (16)
172 people answered this question. With Chihayafuru being a single narrative that isn't traditionally divided into arcs, it's natural that a large percentage of people don't have a favourite. Season 3 appears to be the most-well liked season and there's yet a considerable number of people that are more interested in unadapted events.

Which Chihayafuru anime OP is your favourite? (Please consider both song and visuals)

Answer Percentage (Number)
YOUTHFUL 45.9% (79)
I don't have a favourite 20.3% (35)
COLORFUL 19.2% (33)
STAR 14.5% (25)
172 people responded to this question. YOUTHFUL seems to be the most beloved OP. It's often considered synonymous with the series and repeated quite often which is common in sports anime. A large number of people don't seem to have a favourite OP while the rest are in much closer contention with each other.

Which Chihayafuru anime ED is your favourite? (Please consider both song and visuals)

Answer Percentage (Number)
I don't have a favourite 33.3% (57)
Hitomebore 31.6% (54)
Soshite Ima 21.1% (36)
Akanezora 14% (24)
171 people responded to this question. People seem to be more indifferent towards Chihayafuru EDs compared to OPs which does make sense because a lot of anime fans do skip EDs. This could be a poll option in the future. Season 3 ED seems to be the most favoured one with Season 1 ED only just behind. No overwhelming majority for any option in this case.

Do you read the Chihayafuru manga? If so, how?

Answer Percentage (Number)
I exclusively read for free on manga aggregate sites/sail the high seas 48.8% (82)
I am an anime-only 31.5% (53)
I buy the volumes legally but read ahead of the official translation via other means 16.7% (28)
I buy the volumes but don't read scanlations 3% (5)
168 people responded to this question. We clearly have more manga readers here than anime-onlies and a considerable number of people seem to buy the volumes even though they read the scanlations.

Have you watched the Chihayafuru live action movies?

Answer Percentage (Number)
No 73.3% (126)
Yes 14.5% (25)
Only some of them 12.2% (21)
172 people answered this question. Quite an overwhelming number of people haven't seen them while a fair few haven't seen all of them. People seem to be largely indifferent about the live-action medium but the movies aren't exactly known for their quality so maybe it's better this way.

Who is your favourite Chihayafuru character?

Answer Percentage (Number)
Mashima Taichi 43.9% (75)
Ayase Chihaya 20.5% (35)
Wataya Arata 11.1% (19)
Wakamiya Shinobu 8.2% (14)
Ooe Kanade 4.7% (8)
Harada Hideo 3.5% (6)
Suo Hisashi 1.8% (3)
Sudo Akito 1.8% (3)
Nishida Yusei 1.2% (2)
Hanano Sumire 1.2% (2)
Yamashiro Rion 1.2% (2)
Sakurazawa Midori 0.6% (1)
Inokuma Haruka 0.6% (1)
Komano Tsutomu 0% (0)
Tsukuba Akihiro 0% (0)
Kinashi Hiro (Retro) 0% (0)
Other 0% (0)
171 people answered this question. Taichi seems to be the favourite for roughly half the subreddit while Chihaya and Arata seem to have a lot of support. For side characters, Shinobu and Harada perform well for their limited screentime. On the bottom, you have the unloved who received 0 votes although one of them really does deserve it.

Do you ship characters in Chihayafuru? If so, which ones?

Answer Percentage (Number)
Chihaya x Taichi 47.4% (82)
Chihaya x Arata 30.1% (52)
Kana x Tsutomu 28.9% (50)
I don't ship characters 22.1% (38)
Chihaya x Taichi x Arata 3.6% (6)
Shinobu x Arata 3% (5)
Chihaya x Shinobu 2.4% (4)
Sumire x Taichi 1.2% (2)
Chihaya x Sudo 1.2% (2)
Taichi x Shinobu 0.6% (1)
Arata x Taichi 0.6% (1)
Shinobu x Suo 0.6% (1)
Sudo x Taichi 0.6% (1)
All survey respondents answered this question. That was an absolutely clusterfuck to figure out with all the weird answers I got. All the Character x Happiness answers were grouped into I don't ship characters and most ships that made sense are listed out here. I expected more people to not ship characters but it seems that the top 3 ships are significantly more popular than staying neutral.

Which medium do you prefer for Chihayafuru?

Answer Percentage (Number)
Anime 81.4% (140)
Manga 18.6% (32)
Live Action 0% (0)
172 respondents answered this question. Anime seems to be the preferred medium for most people. This is by far the most overwhelming majority for any one response throughout the whole survey meaning people are really satisfied with Morio Asaka's work on the Chihayafuru anime. On the other hand, there isn't a single soul that prefers live action despite a considerable amount having seen those films.

Is Chihayafuru your favourite anime/manga?

Answer Percentage (Number)
It's definitely up there 72.3% (125)
Yes, it's the best 16.8% (29)
I've seen better 7.5% (13)
The anime is in my favourites (not the manga) 2.3% (4)
The manga is in my favourites (not the anime) 1.2% (2)
All survey respondents answered this question. Unlike more mainstream anime communities, there isn't an overwhelming number that has Chihayafuru as their favourite anime ever even if the vast majority has it among their favourites. It speaks more to the community's maturity as anime fans rather than a lack of dedication when you consider that Chihayafuru fans are likelier to be willing to try out a more diverse array of shows.

How would you rate Chihayafuru on a 1-5 scale?

Answer Percentage (Number)
5 65.3% (113)
4 33.5% (58)
3 1.2% (2)
2 0% (0)
1 0% (0)
All survey respondents answered this question. Most people seem to have it at a perfect score while a fair few rate the series closer to perfect. Pretty much expected results all around.

How much Chihayafuru merch do you own?

Answer Percentage (Number)
None 80.1% (136)
Physical manga volumes 11.8% (20)
Karuta cards 11.2% (19)
Soundtracks or OP/ED singles 4.7% (8)
BDs/DVDs 4.7% (8)
Storyboards/Lineart/Official Art 0.6% (1)
Other merch 3.6% (7)
170 people answered this question. The lack of availability for merch is quite evident but some people haven't let that stop them.

What are your opinions on the Chihayafuru fanbase?

Answer Percentage (Number)
Minor gripes aside, I love most aspects of the fanbase 49.1% (78)
It has its problems but so does every fanbase 28.9% (49)
I love the fanbase unconditionally 20.1% (32)
The fanbase is worse/more toxic than others 1.9% (3)
159 people answered this question. Most people seem to acknowledge that parts of the fanbase has problems. However, most fanbases do and they're still happy to be a part of it. Some do love it unconditionally and very few seem to think it's overly toxic. Overall, a really mature response.

Other anime and manga

How many total anime have you completed to date?

Answer Percentage (Number)
100-250 30.4% (52)
50-100 25.1% (43)
250-500 17.5% (30)
Less than 50 13.5% (23)
500-1000 7.6% (13)
1000+ 2.9% (5)
I don't know/don't watch anime 2.9% (5)
171 people responded to this question. It's a bit surprising to see that most people's numbers aren't super high considering the relatively high mean age and Chihayafuru's more niche status. Still, give it a year and a lot of these numbers could crank up during the COVID pandemic.

How many total manga have you completed to date?

Answer Percentage (Number)
Less than 50 59.1% (101)
50-100 17.5% (30)
100-250 7% (12)
250-500 7% (12)
I don't know/don't read manga 4.7% (8)
500-1000 2.9% (5)
1000+ 1.8% (3)
171 people answered this question. It's pretty evident that people read manga a lot less than they watch anime here. Still a lot of people that have read a lot despite the nature of a lot of manga to publish for many years.

How long have you been watching anime/reading manga?

Answer Percentage (Number)
10 to 20 years 34.7% (60)
5 to 10 years 31.8% (55)
2 to 4 years 22% (38)
20+ years 6.4% (11)
Only for a year 4% (7)
I only started a few months ago 1.2% (2)
All survey respondents answered this question. Most people are older anime fans despite not having very high numbers as I pointed out earlier. Very few people seem to have started watching recently. It is rather bleak prospects as a lot of newer anime fans seem to be less willing to step outside of their comfort zone and discover shows like Chihayafuru. We can only hope this changes as time passes.

Which of the following are you particular about?

Answer Percentage (Number)
I am willing to watch any anime regardless of age and popularity 79.9% (135)
I do not watch anything from the 90's or earlier 9.5% (16)
I do not watch anime from the 80's or earlier 7.7% (13)
I only watch very recent popular anime 1.2% (2)
I only watch anime seasonally 1.2% (2)
I do not watch anything made before the 2010's 0.6% (1)
169 people answered this question. As overwhelming as the response is for most people being willing to watch anything, it's still strange to see a considerable number still refuse to watch oldeless popular anime despite being fans of a less popular show that will inevitably fall off the radar of newer anime fans. Y'all need some Cardcaptor Sakura, Utena and LoGH in your lives.

Which of these mediums do you actively consume?

Answer Percentage (Number)
Anime 95.9% (164)
Manga 68.4% (117)
Live action TV/Movies 23.4% (40)
Light Novels 21.6% (37)
Visual Novels 14.6% (25)
171 people answered this question. Very high interest rates for anime and manga aside, live action TV and movies are more preferred to LNs and VNs despite both being a part of the animanga-sphere.

Do you consume shoujo and josei media?

Answer Percentage (Number)
I like a lot of shoujo classics 58.1% (97)
I like prominent josei anime 39.5% (66)
Chihayafuru is the only shoujo/josei anime I like 22.2% (37)
167 people answered this question. Over half the respondents love their shoujo classics and a fair few are into josei as well while a lot of them go out of their way to read shoujo and josei manga. Fairly nice results considering the larger anime community's indifference to media that falls under these demographics.

Do you like sports anime/manga other than Chihayafuru?

Answer Percentage (Number)
I only watch sports anime if they look good/are critically acclaimed 40% (68)
I actively consume a lot of sports anime/manga 38.8% (66)
Chihayafuru is the only sports anime/manga I like 12.4% (21)
I only like Haikyu!! and Chihayafuru 8.2% (14)
I only watch anime featuring sports I've played 0.6% (1)
170 people answered this question. Considering that sports anime are largely ignored by the larger anime community and Haikyu!! is often considered the 'exception', it's good to see that mindset isn't incredibly prevalent here (although it could be less prevalent yet). I'd kinda like to poll people on their favourite sports anime and make a recommendation wiki entry on that too at some point.

Which shoujo and josei anime/manga would you recommend to Chihayafuru fans?

We had 59 responses for this question. I have created a shoujo and josei recommendation wiki based on these responses. The cutoff was 2 votes. Some suggested entries that weren't shoujo or josei were excluded from the wiki.

Shoujo and Josei Recommendation Wiki

What are your favourite anime and manga aside from Chihayafuru?

We had 117 responses for this question. Similar to the shoujo and josei wiki, I have created a general recommendation wiki for the responses to this question. Unlike the shoujo and josei wiki, the cutoff here was 4 votes to keep the number of entries down.

General Anime/Manga Recommendation Wiki

submitted by EpicTroll27 to chihayafuru [link] [comments]

Planning on putting together a short training for treating transgender patients, looking for input

A goal of mine is to create a short training program for pharmacy team members that will help us provide the best care for our transgender patients and I'm looking for input on what you'd want to have included. This could be something you wish you knew more about or also something you wish more people were educated on.
Some thoughts I had were: * Trans 101 (including common acronyms such as TGNB - transgendenon-binary or HRT-hormone replacement therapy) * Gender appropriate language training * Addressing health care disparities and barriers to care (including unique challenges our TGNB patients face) * The pharmacists' role in TGNB care * Pharmacologic therapy options for HRT * Resources to help minimize the cost barriers for HRT (PAs, 340b, discount cards, etc) * Ideas on how to partner with providers who specialize in TGNB care * Curated list of supplementary resources (documentaries, books, etc)
Thanks!
submitted by Ambien_Walrus_ to pharmacy [link] [comments]

Morrowind 2020 Remastered Mod List By ColdMod

Morrowind 2020 Remastered Mod List By ColdMod

https://preview.redd.it/sf55y47s7do41.jpg?width=3840&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c88e7d10401c7956d651853b58d34a0697b98e99
https://preview.redd.it/qn2d7arx6do41.jpg?width=3840&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=4955e1bbdc9bd38821e4b5e824687ae52d5eaf07
Morrowind 2020 Remastered Mod List
By ColdMod
This installation is intended for Vanilla Morrowind not OpenMW. Install Mod Organizer 2 (MO2)https://www.nexusmods.com/skyrimspecialedition/mods/6194. Have it locate your Morrowind installation folder. This is what you’ll be using to install the following mods aside from the first three which are installed manually. MGE XE and the Game Have to be launched through MO2.
  1. Morrowind Code Patch (Install in the same folder as your Morrowind installation. Not the Data Folder.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/19510
  1. MGE XE (Install in the same folder as above. Run the Distant land generator wizard anytime you change any landscape mods. Grass, textures, trees doesn’t matter run it everytime. Under the graphics tab click the checkbox labeled ‘Enable Shaders.’ Click the shader setup button and enable depth of field. Lastly set your display to the proper size of your monitor no smaller and put in your correct aspect ratio. https://github.com/ModOrganizer2/modorganizewiki/Executables-window This is the executables window click on it click edit and add MGE XE by click on Binary and locate MGEXEgui.exe. Name it MGE XE click ok. Now you can run MGE XE through MO2. Only run it this way now, same with the game.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/41102
  1. MWSE (Install in the same folder)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45468
  1. Patch for Purists
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45096?tab=files
  1. Morrowind Optimization Patch
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45384?tab=description
  1. Intelligent Textures
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/47469
  1. Better Bodies (There’s nude or non-nude. I’m not judging. Pick one.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/3880
  1. Mage Robes
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45739
  1. Subtle Magic Glow
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/4468
  1. Better Clothes
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42262
  1. More Better Clothes (I know terrible grammar.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/36406?tab=description
  1. HiRez Better Clothes
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45499
  1. Better Morrowind Armor
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42509?tab=description
  1. Better Meshes
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/38170?tab=description
  1. Better Robes
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42773
  1. Apel’s Rain Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42555
  1. Animation Compilation
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43982
  1. Dirnaes Beast Animations
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42080?tab=description
  1. Enhanced Water Shader for MGE XE
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45432
  1. Apoapse’s Attack 2.2 (Yes now you can actually kill something at low level and not have to hit it a million times only to miss.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44007
  1. Silt Strider Bump Mapped
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43406
  1. Netch Bump Mapped
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42851
  1. Apel’s Fire Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42554
  1. Magic Diversity -COMPLETE-
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43380
  1. Soulgem Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44117?tab=description
  1. On the Rocks Optimized (Download all main files)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43075
  1. Imperial Houses and Forts Retexture – Ordo Arkitektora
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43940
  1. Apel’s Lighthouse Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42532
  1. Dwemer Mesh Improvement
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43101
  1. Dwemer Ruins Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43915
  1. Full Dwemer Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44264
  1. HD Architecture Meshes (Only download Skar 4096x)
http://mw.modhistory.com/download-55-6854
  1. High-Res Skaal Retex
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/25650
  1. Hlaalu – Arkitektora Vol. 2
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46246?tab=description
  1. Imperial Forts Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43083
  1. Better Bodies – Hand Fixes
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/47521
  1. Better Bread
https://www.nexus mods.com/morrowind/mods/46899
  1. Rubber’s Updated Kitchen Kit
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46874
  1. Real Signposts
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/3879
  1. MacKom’s Khajiit
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44206
  1. Ket’s Swirlwood Furniture Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45127
  1. Ket’s Paper Lanterns Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45123
  1. Ket’s Potions and Beverages Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44781
  1. Redoran Arkitektora
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46235
  1. Vivec and Velothi Arkitektora
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46266
  1. Shacks Docks and Ships – Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43520?tab=description
  1. Velothi – Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43511
  1. Daedric Ruins – Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43486?tab=description
  1. Sewers - Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43144
  1. Dunmeri Urns – Aestetika Or Vvardenfell
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43541?tab=description
  1. Hlaalu - Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43098?tab=description
  1. Redoran - Arkitektora of Vvardenfell
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43003
  1. Telvanni Bump Maps (Download the Main File and the Optional file.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42431
  1. Telvanni - Arkitektora of Vvardenfell (Download the HQ Main File, the update file and the HQ optional file.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43530?tab=description
  1. Correct UV Mudcrabs
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42130
  1. Correct UV Rocks
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46104
  1. Properly Smoothed Meshes
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46747
  1. Ingredients Mesh Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44067
  1. Long Live the Limewire – Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44045
  1. AST Beds Texture Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/21970
  1. AOF Containers
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/32427?tab=description
  1. Better Kegstands
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/37708
  1. Arukinn’s Better Books and Scrolls
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43100
  1. Improved Kwama Eggs and Egg Sacs
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43555?tab=description
  1. Bloodmoon Hide Replacer BHR
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/21725
  1. One True Faith – Saints and Frescoes Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43810
  1. Long Live the Glassware – Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44016
  1. Long Live the Plates – Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43935
  1. Improved Better Skulls
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46012
  1. Apel’s Various Things – Signs
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42576?tab=description
  1. Unique Finery Replacer UFR
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/25725
  1. Guar Replacer – Aendemika of Vvardenfell
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42521/?tab=files
  1. Alit Replacer – Aendemika of Vvardenfell
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42520
  1. Kagouti Replacer - Aendemika of Vvardenfell
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42523
  1. Better Spriggans
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44271
  1. Nix-Hound Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43620?tab=description
  1. Clannfear Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45173
  1. Various Little Mods (Download Kwama forager bump mapped)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43330?tab=files
  1. Luminous Atronachs
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42613
  1. Scamp Replacer (Download the main file and the PBR textures.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44314
  1. Mudcrab Replacer (Same with this one.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46765
  1. Dying Worlds – Moons Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43023?tab=description
  1. Pete’s Journal 2018
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45692?tab=description
  1. The Forgotten Shields – Artifacts
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42112
  1. Armors Retexture – Outlander Styles
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44210
  1. Various Little Mods (Download Colovian Helm and heavy leather boots retexture)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43330?tab=files
  1. Daedric Lord Armor Morrowind Edition
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44081
  1. Ebony Mail Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45183
  1. More Realistic Dwemer Armor
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/41799
  1. Weapon Sheathing (The following mods have patches for this mod use them. Aside from darknut’s.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46069?tab=description
  1. Darknut’s Little Weapons Mod Complete
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43418
  1. Adamantiun Axe Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46791?tab=description
  1. Adamantium Claymore Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46790?tab=files
  1. Nordic Mesh Improvements
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46792?tab=description
  1. Insanity’s (Dwemer) Weapons of Morrowind- For Morrwind (Download main file and optional file.
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44487?tab=description
  1. Silver Mesh Improvements
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46787?tab=description
  1. Real Reflective Weapons – Iron
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43077
  1. Improved Weapon Meshes – Steel
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43120/?tab=description
  1. Smooth Glass Weapons
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46778?tab=files
  1. Bonemold Bow Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45156?tab=description
  1. Oriental Mesh Improvements
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/29906?tab=description
  1. Daedric Intervention (Just the weapons)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46044?tab=description
  1. Improved Weapon Meshes – Ebony
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43484?tab=description
  1. Wooden Staff Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44894?tab=description
  1. HQ Weapons (Only download Artifacts – Merged and the weapon sheathing patch for artifacts.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46308
  1. Skies IV
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43311?tab=description
  1. Apel’s Asura Coast and Sheogorath Region Retexture
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42573
  1. A Strange Plant
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42009
  1. Glow in The Dark
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45886
  1. Caverns Bump Mapped (Download the main file and the optional file.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42412?tab=description
  1. Comberry Bush and Ingredient Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42586?tab=description
  1. Hackle-Lo Fixed
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42784?tab=description
  1. Mines and Caverns
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44893
  1. Pherim’s Fire Fern – Plant and Ingredient
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43568
  1. Underwater Static Replacer
http://mw.modhistory.com/download-56-11998
  1. RainSplash
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43124
  1. Where Are All the Birds Going (Make sure to download the update!)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43128?tab=files
  1. Vurt’s Lava and Smoke
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/28519
  1. Water Life
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42417?tab=description
  1. Improved Argonians
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45918
  1. Landscape Retexture (This one install first)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/42575
  1. Retvicture Vvardenfell and Solstheim in the original style (Then this one. Install the hq textures first, then the uhd textures.
https://www.fullrest.ru/files/tyd_landscape-texture_compilation_1/files
  1. Dahrk Mods By Melchior (Download AI trees only.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43528?tab=files
  1. Mushroom Tree Replacer (Download main file and PBR textures.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45350?tab=description
  1. Remiro’s Ascadian Isles Trees (Download the vanilla version.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45779
  1. Vurts Solstheim Tree Replacer II
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/37856
  1. Vanilla -Friendly West Gash Tree Replacer
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/44173?tab=description
  1. Vurts Bitter Coast Tree II
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/37489
  1. Vurt’s Grazeland Trees II – Vanilla Friendly Edition (Download main file and update)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46402?tab=description
  1. Remiro’s Alcohol HD
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46023
  1. Vurt’s Ashlands Overhaul (Download the vanilla style)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/29399
  1. Bungler’s Bane and Hypha Facia HD
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/45639
  1. Epic Plants (Download the main file and all the optional files, nothing else)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46180?tab=files
  1. Djangos Rugs and Tapestries
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/36872
  1. Aesthesia Groundcover – Grass Mod (Ok download the main file. Extract it to your desktop. Open the folder. Delete the files that have TR in the title. Open the ‘Grass Vanilla’ folder. Move the plug-ins to the main folder that has the meshes and textures. Open the ‘Grass generator config’ folder. Open up the folder ‘Aesthesia grass full 2 parts.’ Move the contents to the main folder you just put the plugins. Now delete the folders that aren’t meshes or textures. Make a new folder named Data. Place everything including the meshes and textures folders into the Data folder. Now back out of all the files and right click the modified plugin. Add to archive. Install to MO2. Do not enable the grass plug-ins in MO2. Instead use your distant land generator wizard in MGE XE and enable the plug-ins in there. Then run the generator.)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/46377
  1. Smart Crosshair
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/43191
  1. MacKom’s Humanoid Heads (Very underrated mod! Please Endorse!)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/47481
  1. New Hairs for MacKom Races Redone (Super good and lore friendly! Please endorse!)
https://www.nexusmods.com/morrowind/mods/47398
That’s it! Hope you enjoy!
https://preview.redd.it/f46w90f37do41.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e74c94bb000e4605dd38090238531de6e6e9d447
submitted by benfarrar87 to Morrowind [link] [comments]

Comprehensive Guide for getting into Home Recording

I'm going to borrow from a few sources and do my best to make this cohesive, but this question comes up a lot. I thought we had a comprehensive guide, but it doesn't appear so. In the absence of this, I feel that a lot of you could use a simple place to go for some basics on recording. There are a couple of great resources online already on some drumming forums, but I don't think they will be around forever.
Some background on myself - I have been drumming a long time. During that time, home recording has gone from using a cassette deck to having a full blown studio at your finger tips. The technology in the last 15 years has gotten so good it really is incredible. When I was trying to decide what I wanted to do with my life, I decided to go to school for audio engineering in a world-class studio. During this time I had access to the studio and was able to assist with engineering on several projects. This was awesome, and I came out with a working knowledge of SIGNAL CHAIN, how audio works in the digital realm, how microphones work, studio design, etc. Can I answer your questions? Yes.

First up: Signal Chain! This is the basic building block of recording. Ever seen a "I have this plugged in but am getting no sound!" thread? Yeah, signal chain.

A "Signal Chain" is the path your audio follows, from sound source, to the recording device, and back out of your monitors (speakers to you normies).
A typical complete signal chain might go something like this:
1] instrument/sound source 2] Microphone/TransducePickup 3] Cable 4] Mic Preamp/DI Box 5] Analog-to-Digital Converter 6] Digital transmission medium[digital data get recoded for usb or FW transfer] 7] Digital recording Device 8] DSP and Digital summing/playback engine 9] Digital-to-Analog Converter 10] Analog output stage[line outputs and output gain/volume control] 11] Monitors/Playback device[headphones/other transducers]
Important Terms, Definitions, and explanations (this will be where the "core" information is):
1] AD Conversion: the process by which the electrical signal is "converted" to a stream of digital code[binary, 1 and 0]. This is accomplished, basically, by taking digital pictures of the audio...and this is known as the "sampling rate/frequency" The number of "pictures" determines the frequency. So the CD standard of 44.1k is 44,100 "pictures" per second of digital code that represents the electrical "wave" of audio. It should be noted that in order to reproduce a frequency accuratly, the sampling rate must be TWICE that of the desired frequency (See: Nyquist-Shannon Theorem). So, a 44.1 digital audio device can, in fact, only record frequencies as high as 22.05khz, and in the real world, the actual upper frequency limit is lower, because the AD device employs a LOW-PASS filter to protect the circuitry from distortion and digital errors called "ALIASING." Confused yet? Don't worry, there's more... We haven't even talked about Bit depth! There are 2 settings for recording digitally: Sample Rate and Bit Depth. Sample rate, as stated above, determines the frequencies captured, however bit depth is used to get a better picture of the sample. Higher bit depth = more accurate sound wave representation. More on this here. Generally speaking, I record at 92KHz/24 bit depth. This makes huge files, but gets really accurate audio. Why does it make huge files? Well, if you are sampling 92,000 times per second, you are taking each sample and applying 24 bits to that, multiply it out and you get 92,000*24 = 2,208,000 bits per second or roughly 0.26MB per second for ONE TRACK. If that track is 5 minutes long, that is a file that is 78.96MB in size. Now lets say you used 8 inputs on an interface, that is, in total, 631.7MB of data. Wow, that escalates quick, right? There is something else to note as well here: Your CPU has to calculate this. So the amount of calculations it needs to perform for this same scenario is ~17.7 million calculations PER SECOND. This is why CPU speed and RAM is super important when recording digitally.
2] DA conversion: the process by which the digital code (the computer representation of a sound wave) is transformed back into electrcal energy in the proper shape. In a oversimplified explanation, the code is measured and the output of the convertor reflects the value of the code by changing voltage. Think of a sound wave on a grid: Frequency would represent the X axis (the horizontal axis)... but there is a vertical axis too. This is called AMPLITUDE or how much energy the wave is generating. People refer to this as how 'loud' a sound is, but that's not entirely correct. You can have a high amplitude wave that is played at a quiet volume. It's important to distinguish the two. How loud a sound is can be controlled by the volume on a speaker or transducer. But that has no impact on how much amplitude the sound wave has in the digital space or "in the wire" on its way to the transducer. So don't get hung up on how "loud" a waveform is, it is how much amplitude it has when talking about it "in the box" or before it gets to the speakeheadphone/whatever.
3] Cables: An often overlooked expense and tool, cables can in fact, make or break your recording. The multitudes of types of cable are determined by the connector, the gauge(thickness), shielding, type of conductor, etc... Just some bullet points on cables:
- Always get the highest quality cabling you can afford. Low quality cables often employ shielding that doesnt efectively protect against AC hums(60 cycle hum), RF interference (causing your cable to act as a gigantic AM/CB radio antenna), or grounding noise introduced by other components in your system. - The way cables are coiled and treated can determine their lifespan and effectiveness. A kinked cable can mean a broken shield, again, causing noise problems. - The standard in the USA for wiring an XLR(standard microphone) cable is: PIN 1= Cold/-, PIN 2= Hot/+, PIN 3=Ground/shield. Pin 3 carries phantom power, so it is important that the shield of your cables be intact and in good condition if you want to use your mic cables without any problems. - Cables for LINE LEVEL and HI-Z(instrument level) gear are not the same! - Line Level Gear, weather professional or consumer, should generally be used with balanced cables (on a 1/4" connector, it will have 3 sections and is commonly known as TRS -or- TipRingSleeve). A balanced 1/4" is essentially the same as a microphone cable, and in fact, most Professional gear with balanced line inputs and outputs will have XLR connectors instead of 1/4" connectors. - Hi-Z cable for instruments (guitars, basses, keyboards, or anything with a pickup) is UNBALANCED, and should be so. The introduction of a balanced cable can cause electricity to be sent backwards into a guitar and shock the guitar player. You may want this to happen, but your gear doesn't. There is some danger here as well, especially on stage, where the voltage CAN BE LETHAL. When running a guitabass/keyboard "Direct" into your interface, soundcard, or recording device, you should ALWAYS use a "DIRECT BOX", which uses a transformer to isolate and balance the the signal or you can use any input on the interface designated as a "Instrument" or "Hi-Z" input. It also changes some electrical properties, resulting in a LINE LEVEL output (it amplifies it from instrument level to line level).
4] Digital Data Transmissions: This includes S/PDIF, AES/EBU, ADAT, MADI. I'm gonna give a brief overview of this stuff, since its unlikely that alot of you will ever really have to think about it: - SDPIF= Sony Phillips Digital Interface Format. using RCA or TOSLINK connectors, this is a digital protocol that carries 3 streams of information. Digital audio Left, Digital Audio Right, and CLOCK. SPDIF generally supports 48khz/20bit information, though some modern devices can support up to 24bits, and up to 88.2khz. SPDIF is the consumer format of AES/EBU - AES/EBU= Audio Engineering Society/European Breadcasters Union Digital protocol uses a special type of cable often terminated with XLR connectors to transmit 2 channels of Digital Audio. AES/EBU is found mostly on expensive professional digital gear. - ADAT= the Alesis Digital Audio Tape was introduced in 1991, and was the first casette based system capable of recording 8 channels of digital audio onto a single cartridge(a SUPER-VHS tape, same one used by high quality VCR's). Enough of the history, its not so important because we are talking about ADAT-LIGHTPIPE Protocol, which is a digital transmission protocol that uses fiberoptic cable and devices to send up to 8 channels of digital audio simultaneously and in sync. ADAT-Lightpipe supports up to 48khz sample rates. This is how people expand the number of inputs by chaining interfaces. - MADI is something you will almost never encounter. It is a protocol that allows up to 64 channels of digital audio to be transmitted over a single cable that is terminated by BNC connectors. Im just telling you it exists so in case you ever encounter a digital snake that doesnt use Gigabit Ethernet, you will know whats going on.
digital transmission specs: SPDIF -> clock->2Ch->RCA cable(consumer) ADAT-Lightpipe->clock->8Ch->Toslink(semi-pro) SPDIF-OPTICAL->clock->2Ch->Toslink(consumer) AES/EBU->clock->2Ch->XLR(Pro) TDIF->clock->8Ch->DSub(Semi-Pro) ______________ MADI->no clock->64Ch->BNC{rare except in large scale pofessional apps} SDIF-II->no clock->24Ch->DSub{rare!} AES/EBU-13->no clock->24Ch->DSub
5] MICROPHONES: There are many types of microphones, and several names for each type. The type of microphone doesn't equate to the polar pattern of the microphone. There are a few common polar patterns in microphones, but there are also several more that are less common. These are the main types- Omni-Directional, Figure 8 (bi-directional), Cardioid, Super Cardioid, Hyper Cardioid, Shotgun. Some light reading.... Now for the types of microphones: - Dynamic Microphones utilize polarized magnets to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. there are 2 types of dynamic microphones: 1) Moving Coil microphones are the most common type of microphone made. They are also durable, and capable of handling VERY HIGH SPL (sound pressure levels). 2) Ribbon microphones are rare except in professional recording studios. Ribbon microphones are also incredibly fragile. NEVER EVER USE PHANTOM POWER WITH A RIBBON MICROPHONE, IT WILL DIE (unless it specifically requires it, but I've only ever seen this on one Ribbon microphone ever). Sometimes it might even smoke or shoot out a few sparks; applying phantom power to a Ribbon Microphone will literally cause the ribbon, which is normally made from Aluminum, to MELT. Also, windblasts and plosives can rip the ribbon, so these microphones are not suitible for things like horns, woodwinds, vocals, kick drums, or anything that "pushes air." There have been some advances in Ribbon microphones and they are getting to be more common, but they are still super fragile and you have to READ THE MANUAL CAREFULLY to avoid a $1k+ mistake. - CondenseCapacitor Microphones use an electrostatic charge to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. The movement of the diaphragm(often metal coated mylar) toward a ceramic "backplate" causes a fluctuation in the charge, which is then amplified inside the microphone and output as an electrical signal. Condenser microphones usually use phantom power to charge the capacitors' and backplate in order to maintain the electrostatic charge. There are several types of condenser microphones: 1) Tube Condenser Microphones: historically, this type of microphone has been used in studios since the 1940s, and has been refined and redesigned hundreds, if not thousands of times. Some of the "best sounding" and most desired microphones EVER MADE are Tube Condenser microphones from the 50's and 60's. These vintage microphones, in good condition, with the original TUBES can sell for hundreds of thousands of dollars. Tube mics are known for sounding "full", "warm", and having a particular character, depending on the exact microphone. No 2 tubes mics, even of the same model, will sound the same. Similar, but not the same. Tube mics have their own power supplies, which are not interchangeable to different models. Each tube mic is a different design, and therefore, has different power requirements. 2) FET Condenser microphones: FET stands for "Field Effect Transistor" and the technology allowed condenser microphones to be miniturized. Take for example, the SHURE beta98s/d, which is a minicondenser microphone. FET technology is generally more transparant than tube technology, but can sometimes sound "harsh" or "sterile". 3) Electret Condenser Microphones are a condenser microphone that has a permanent charge, and therefore, does not require phantom power; however, the charge is not truly permanent, and these mics often use AA or 9V batteries, either inside the mic, or on a beltpack. These are less common.
Other important things to know about microphones:
- Pads, Rolloffs, etc: Some mics have switches or rotating collars that notate certain things. Most commonly, high pass filters/lowcut filters, or attenuation pads. 1) A HP/LC Filter does exactly what you might think: Removes low frequency content from the signal at a set frequency and slope. Some microphones allow you to switch the rolloff frequency. Common rolloff frequencies are 75hz, 80hz, 100hz, 120hz, 125hz, and 250hz. 2) A pad in this example is a switch that lowers the output of the microphone directly after the capsule to prevent overloading the input of a microphone preamplifier. You might be asking: How is that possible? Some microphones put out a VERY HIGH SIGNAL LEVEL, sometimes about line level(-10/+4dbu), mic level is generally accepted to start at -75dbu and continues increasing until it becomes line level in voltage. It should be noted that linel level signals are normally of a different impedance than mic level signals, which is determined by the gear. An example for this would be: I mic the top of a snare drum with a large diaphragm condenser mic (solid state mic, not tube) that is capable of handling very high SPLs (sound pressure levels). When the snare drum is played, the input of the mic preamp clips (distorts), even with the gain turned all the way down. To combat this, I would use a pad with enough attenuation to lower the signal into the proper range of input (-60db to -40 db). In general, it is accepted to use a pad with only as much attentuation as you need, plus a small margin of error for extra “headroom”. What this means is that if you use a 20db pad where you only need a 10db pad, you will then have to add an additional 10db of gain to achieve a desireable signal level. This can cause problems, as not all pads sound good, or even transparent, and can color and affect your signal in sometimes unwanted ways that are best left unamplified. - Other mic tips/info: 1) when recording vocals, you should always use a popfilter. A pop filter mounted on a gooseneck is generally more effective than a windscreen made of foam that slips over the microphone. The foam type often kill the highfrequency response, alter the polar pattern, and can introduce non-linear polarity problems(part of the frequency spectrum will be out of phase.) If you don't have a pop filter or don't want to spend on one, buy or obtain a hoop of some kind, buy some cheap panty-hose and stretch it over the hoop to build your own pop filter. 2) Terms Related to mics: - Plosives: “B”, “D”, “F”, “G”, “J”, “P”, “T” hard consonants and other vocal sounds that cause windblasts. These are responsible for a low frequency pop that can severly distort the diaphragm of the microphone, or cause a strange inconsistency of tonality by causing a short term proximity effect.
- Proximity effect: An exponential increase in low frequency response causes by having a microphone excessivly close to a sound. This can be cause by either the force of the air moving actually causes the microphone’s diaphragm to move and sometimes distort, usually on vocalists or buy the buildup of low frequency soundwaves due to off-axis cancellation ports. You cannot get proximity effect on an omnidirectional microphone. With some practice, you can use proximity effect to your advantage, or as an effect. For example, if you are recording someone whispering and it sounds thin or weak and irritating due to the intenese high mid and high frequency content, get the person very close to a cardioid microphone with two popfilters, back to back approx 1/2”-1” away from the mic and set your gain carefully, and you can achieve a very intimite recording of whispering. In a different scenario, you can place a mic inside of a kick drum between 1”-3” away from the inner shell, angled up and at the point of impact, and towards the floor tom. This usually captures a huge low end, and the sympathetic vibration of the floor tom on the kick drum hits, but retains a clarity of attack without being distorted by the SPL of the drum and without capturing unplesant low-mid resonation of the kick drum head and shell that is common directly in the middle of the shell.
6) Wave Envelope: The envelope is the graphical representation of a sound wave commonly found in a DAW. There are 4 parts to this: Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release: 1) Attack is how quickly the sound reaches its peak amplitude; 2) Decay is the time it takes to reach the sustain level; 3) Sustain how long a sound remains at a certain level (think of striking a tom, the initial smack is attack, then it decays to the resonance of the tom, how long it resonates is the sustain); 4) Release is the amount of time before the sustain stops. This is particularly important as these are also the settings on a common piece of gear called a Compressor! Understanding the envelope of a sound is key to learning how to maniuplate it.
7) Phase Cancellation: This is one of the most important concepts in home recording, especially when looking at drums. I'm putting it in this section because it matters so much. Phase Cancellation is what occurs when the same frequencies occur at different times. To put it simply, frequency amplitudes are additive - meaning if you have 2 sound waves of the same frequency, one amplitude is +4 and the other is +2, the way we percieve sound is that the frequency is +6. But a sound wave has a positive and negative amplitude as it travels (like a wave in the ocean with a peak and a swell). If the frequency then has two sources and it is 180 degrees out of phase, that means one wave is at +4 while the other is at -4. This sums to 0, or cancels out the wave. Effectively, you would hear silence. This is why micing techniques are so important, but we'll get into that later. I wanted this term at the top, and will likely mention it again.

Next we can look at the different types of options to actually record your sound!

1) Handheld/All in one/Field Recorders: I don't know if portable cassette tape recorders are still around, but that's an example of one. These are (or used to) be very popular with journalists because they were pretty decent at capturing speech. They do not fare too well with music though. Not too long ago, we saw the emergence of the digital field recorder. These are really nifty little devices. They come in many shapes, sizes and colors, and can be very affordable. They run on batteries, and have built-in microphones, and record digitally onto SD cards or harddiscs. The more simple ones have a pair of built-in condenser microphones, which may or may not be adjustable, and record onto an SD-card. They start around $99 (or less if you don't mind buying refurbished). You turn it on, record, connect the device itself or the SD card to your computer, transfer the file(s) and there is your recording! An entry-level example is the Tascam DR-05. It costs $99. It has two built in omni-directional mics, comes with a 2GB microSD card and runs on two AA batteries. It can record in different formats, the highest being 24-bit 96KHz Broadcast WAV, which is higher than DVD quality! You can also choose to record as an MP3 (32-320kbps) if you need to save space on the SD card or if you're simply going to record a speech/conference or upload it on the web later on. It's got a headphone jack and even small built-in speakers. It can be mounted onto a tripod. And it's about the size of a cell phone. The next step up (although there are of course many options that are price and feature-wise inbetween this one and the last) is a beefier device like the Zoom H4n. It's got all the same features as the Tascam DR-05 and more! It has two adjustable built-in cardioid condenser mics in an XY configuration (you can adjust the angle from a 90-120 degree spread). On the bottom of the device, there are two XLR inputs with preamps. With those, you can expand your recording possibilities with two external microphones. The preamps can send phantom power, so you can even use very nice studio mics. All 4 channels will be recorded independantly, so you can pop them onto your computer later and mix them with software. This device can also act as a USB interface, so instead of just using it as a field recorder, you can connect it directly to your computer or to a DSLR camera for HD filming. My new recommendation for this category is actually the Yamaha EAD10. It really is the best all-in-one solution for anyone that wants to record their kit audio with a great sound. It sports a kick drum trigger (mounts to the rim of the kick) with an x-y pattern set of microphones to pick up the rest of the kit sound. It also has on-board effects, lots of software integration options and smart features through its app. It really is a great solution for anyone who wants to record without reading this guide.
The TL;DR of this guide is - if it seems like too much, buy the Yamaha EAD10 as a simple but effective recording solution for your kit.

2) USB Microphones: There are actually mics that you an plug in directly to your computer via USB. The mics themselves are their own audio interfaces. These mics come in many shapes and sizes, and offer affordable solutions for basic home recording. You can record using a DAW or even something simple like the stock windows sound recorder program that's in the acessories folder of my Windows operating system. The Blue Snowflake is very affordable at $59. It can stand alone or you can attach it to your laptop or your flat screen monitor. It can record up to 44.1kHz, 16-bit WAV audio, which is CD quality. It's a condenser mic with a directional cardioid pickup pattern and has a full frequency response - from 35Hz-20kHz. It probably won't blow you away, but it's a big departure from your average built-in laptop, webcam, headset or desktop microphone. The Audio Technica AT2020 USB is a USB version of their popular AT2020 condenser microphone. At $100 it costs a little more than the regular version. The AT2020 is one of the finest mics in its price range. It's got a very clear sound and it can handle loud volumes. Other companies like Shure and Samson also offer USB versions of some of their studio mics. The AT2020 USB also records up to CD-quality audio and comes with a little desktop tripod. The MXL USB.009 mic is an all-out USB microphone. It features a 1 inch large-diaphragm condenser capsule and can record up to 24-bit 96kHz WAV audio. You can plug your headphones right into the mic (remember, it is its own audio interface) so you can monitor your recordings with no latency, as opposed to doing so with your computer. Switches on the mic control the gain and can blend the mic channel with playback audio. Cost: $399. If you already have a mic, or you don't want to be stuck with just a USB mic, you can purcase a USB converter for your existing microphone. Here is a great review of four of them.
3) Audio Recording Interfaces: You've done some reading up on this stuff... now you are lost. Welcome to the wide, wide world of Audio Interfaces. These come in all different shapes and sizes, features, sampling rates, bit depths, inputs, outputs, you name it. Welcome to the ocean, let's try to help you find land.
- An audio interface, as far as your computer is concerned, is an external sound card. It has audio inputs, such as a microphone preamp and outputs which connect to other audio devices or to headphones or speakers. The modern day recording "rig" is based around a computer, and to get the sound onto your computer, an interface is necessary. All computers have a sound card of some sort, but these have very low quality A/D Converters (analog to digital) and were not designed with any kind of sophisticated audio recording in mind, so for us they are useless and a dedicated audio interface must come into play.
- There are hundreds of interfaces out there. Most commonly they connect to a computer via USB or Firewire. There are also PCI and PCI Express-based interfaces for desktop computers. The most simple interfaces can record one channel via USB, while others can record up to 30 via firewire! All of the connection types into the computer have their advantages and drawbacks. The chances are, you are looking at USB, Firewire, or Thunderbolt. As far as speeds, most interfaces are in the same realm as far as speed is concerned but thunderbolt is a faster data transfer rate. There are some differences in terms of CPU load. Conflict handling (when packages collide) is handled differently. USB sends conflict resolution to the CPU, Firewire handles it internally, Thunderbolt, from what I could find, sends it to the CPU as well. For most applications, none of them are going to be superior from a home-recording standpoint. When you get up to 16/24 channels in/out simultaneously, it's going to matter a lot more.
- There are a number of things to consider when choosing an audio interface. First off your budget, number of channels you'd like to be able to record simultaneously, your monitoring system, your computer and operating system and your applications. Regarding budget, you have to get real. $500 is not going to get you a rig with the ability to multi-track a drum set covered in mics. Not even close! You might get an interface with 8 channels for that much, but you have to factor in the cost of everything, including mics, cables, stands, monitors/headphones, software, etc... Considerations: Stereo Recording or Multi-Track Recording? Stereo Recording is recording two tracks: A left and right channel, which reflects most audio playback systems. This doesn't necessarily mean you are simply recording with two mics, it means that what your rig is recording onto your computer is a single stereo track. You could be recording a 5-piece band with 16 mics/channels, but if you're recording in stereo, all you're getting is a summation of those 16 tracks. This means that in your recording software, you won't be able to manipulate any of those channels independantly after you recorded them. If the rack tom mic wasn't turned up loud enough, or you want to mute the guitars, you can't do that, because all you have is a stereo track of everything. It's up to you to get your levels and balance and tone right before you hit record. If you are only using two mics or lines, then you will have individual control over each mic/line after recording. Commonly, you can find 2 input interfaces and use a sub-mixer taking the left/right outputs and pluging those into each channel of the interface. Some mixers will output a stereo pair into a computer as an interface, such as the Allen&Heath ZED16. If you want full control over every single input, you need to multi-track. Each mic or line that you are recording with will get it's own track in your DAW software, which you can edit and process after the fact. This gives you a lot of control over a recording, and opens up many mixing options, and also many more issues. Interfaces that facilitate multitracking include Presonus FireStudio, Focusrite Scarlett interfaces, etc. There are some mixers that are also interfaces, such as the Presonus StudioLive 16, but these are very expensive. There are core-card interfaces as well, these will plug in directly to your motherboard via PCI or PCI-Express slots. Protools HD is a core-card interface and requires more hardware than just the card to work. I would recommend steering clear of these until you have a firm grasp of signal chain and digital audio, as there are more affordable solutions that will yield similar results in a home-environment.

DAW - Digital Audio Workstation

I've talked a lot about theory, hardware, signal chain, etc... but we need a way to interpret this data. First off what does a DAW do? Some refer to them as DAE's (Digital Audio Editors). You could call it a virtual mixing board , however that isn't entirely correct. DAWs allow you to record, control, mix and manipulate independant audio signals. You can change their volume, add effects, splice and dice tracks, combine recorded audio with MIDI-generated audio, record MIDI tracks and much much more. In the old days, when studios were based around large consoles, the actual audio needed to be recorded onto some kind of medium - analog tape. The audio signals passed through the boards, and were printed onto the tape, and the tape decks were used to play back the audio, and any cutting, overdubbing etc. had to be done physically on the tape. With a DAW, your audio is converted into 1's and 0's through the converters on your interface when you record, and so computers and their harddiscs have largely taken the place of reel-to-reel machines and analog tape.
Here is a list of commonly used DAWs in alphabetical order: ACID Pro Apple Logic Cakewalk SONAR Digital Performer FL (Fruity Loops) Studio (only versions 8 and higher can actually record Audio I believe) GarageBand PreSonus Studio One Pro Tools REAPER Propellerhead Reason (version 6 has combined Reason and Record into one software, so it now is a full audio DAW. Earlier versions of Reason are MIDI based and don't record audio) Propellerhead Record (see above) Steinberg Cubase Steinberg Nuendo
There are of course many more, but these are the main contenders. [Note that not all DAWs actually have audio recording capabilities (All the ones I listed do, because this thread is about audio recording), because many of them are designed for applications like MIDI composing, looping, etc. Some are relatively new, others have been around for a while, and have undergone many updates and transformations. Most have different versions, that cater to different types of recording communities, such as home recording/consumer or professional.
That's a whole lot of choices. You have to do a lot of research to understand what each one offers, what limitations they may have etc... Logic, Garageband and Digital Performer for instance are Mac-only. ACID Pro, FL Studio and SONAR will only run on Windows machines. Garageband is free and is even pre-installed on every Mac computer. Most other DAWs cost something.
Reaper is a standout. A non-commercial license only costs $60. Other DAWs often come bundled with interfaces, such as ProTools MP with M-Audio interfaces, Steinberg Cubase LE with Lexicon Interfaces, Studio One with Presonus Interfaces etc. Reaper is a full function, professional, affordable DAW with a tremendous community behind it. It's my recommendation for everyone, and comes with a free trial. It is universally compatible and not hardware-bound.
You of course don't have to purchase a bundle. Your research might yield that a particular interface will suit your needs well, but the software that the same company offers or even bundles isn't that hot. As a consumer you have a plethora of software and hardware manufacturers competing for your business and there is no shortage of choice. One thing to think about though is compatability and customer support. With some exceptions, technically you can run most DAWs with most interfaces. But again, don't just assume this, do your research! Also, some DAWs will run smoother on certain interfaces, and might experience problems on others. It's not a bad thing to assume that if you purchase the software and hardware from the same company, they're at least somewhat optimized for eachother. In fact, ProTools, until recently would only run on Digidesign (now AVID) and M-Audio interfaces. While many folks didn't like being limited to their hardware choices to run ProTools, a lot of users didn't mind, because I think that at least in part it made ProTools run smoother for everyone, and if you did have a problem, you only had to call up one company. There are many documented cases where consumers with software and hardware from different companies get the runaround:
Software Company X: "It's a hardware issue, call Hardware Company Z". Hardware Company Z: "It's a software issue, call Software Company X".
Another thing to research is the different versions of softwares. Many of them have different versions at different pricepoints, such as entry-level or student versions all the way up to versions catering to the pros. Cheaper versions come with limitations, whether it be a maximum number of audio tracks you can run simultaneously, plug-ins available or supported Plug-In formats and lack of other features that the upper versions have. Some Pro versions might require you to run certain kinds of hardware. I don't have time nor the will to do research on individual DAW's, so if any of you want to make a comparison of different versions of a specific DAW, be my guest! In the end, like I keep stressing - we each have to do our own research.
A big thing about the DAW that it is important to note is this: Your signal chain is your DAW. It is the digital representation of that chain and it is important to understand it in order to properly use that DAW. It is how you route the signal from one spot to another, how you move it through a sidechain compressor or bus the drums into the main fader. It is a digital representation of a large-format recording console, and if you don't understand how the signal gets from the sound source to your monitor (speaker), you're going to have a bad time.

Playback - Monitors are not just for looking at!

I've mentioned monitors several times and wanted to touch on these quickly: Monitors are whatever you are using to listen to the sound. These can be headphones, powered speakers, unpowered speakers, etc. The key thing here is that they are accurate. You want a good depth of field, you want as wide a frequency response as you can get, and you want NEARFIELD monitors. Unless you are working with a space that can put the monitor 8' away from you, 6" is really the biggest speaker size you need. At that point, nearfield monitors will reproduce the audio frequency range faithfully for you. There are many options here, closed back headphones, open back headphones, studio monitors powered, and unpowered (require a separate poweramp to drive the monitor). For headphones, I recommend AKG K271, K872, Sennheiser HD280 Pro, etc. There are many options, but if mixing on headphones I recommend spending some good money on a set. For Powered Monitors, there's really only one choice I recommend: Kali Audio LP-6 monitors. They are, dollar for dollar, the best monitors you can buy for a home studio, period. These things contend with Genelecs and cost a quarter of the price. Yes, they still cost a bit, but if you're going to invest, invest wisely. I don't recommend unpowered monitors, as if you skimp on the poweramp they lose all the advantages you gain with monitors. Just get the powered monitors if you are opting for not headphones.

Drum Mic'ing Guide, I'm not going to re-create the wheel.


That's all for now, this has taken some time to put together (a couple hourse now). I can answer other questions as they pop up. I used a few sources for the information, most notably some well-put together sections on the Pearl Drummers Forum in the recording section. I know a couple of the users are no longer active there, but if you see this and think "Hey, he ripped me off!", you're right, and thanks for allowing me to rip you off!

A couple other tips that I've come across for home recording:
You need to manage your gain/levels when recording. Digital is NOT analog! What does this mean? You should be PEAKING (the loudest the signal gets) around -12dB to -15dB on your meters. Any hotter than that and you are overdriving your digital signal processors.
What sound level should my master bus be at for Youtube?
Bass Traps 101
Sound Proofing 101
submitted by M3lllvar to drums [link] [comments]

Subreddit Demographic Survey 2019 : The Results

Subreddit Demographic Survey 2019

1. Introduction

Once a year, this subreddit hosts a survey in order to get to know the community a little bit and in order to answer questions that are frequently asked here. Earlier this summer, a few thousand of you participated in a massive Subreddit Demographic Survey.
Unfortunately during the process of collating results we lost contact with SailorMercure, who in previous years has completed all of the data analysis from the Google form responses. We were therefore required to collate and analyse the responses from the raw data via Excel. I attach the raw data below for those who would like to review it. For 2020 we will be rebuilding the survey from scratch.
Raw Data
Multiple areas of your life were probed: general a/s/l, education, finances, religious beliefs, marital status, etc. They are separated in 10 sections:
  1. General Demographics
  2. Education Level
  3. Career and Finances
  4. Child Status
  5. Current Location
  6. Religion and Spirituality
  7. Sexual and Romantic Life
  8. Childhood and Family Life
  9. Sterilization
  10. Childfreedom

2. Methodology

Our sample is people from this subreddit who saw that we had a survey going on and were willing to complete the survey. A weekly stickied announcement was used to alert members of the community that a survey was being run.

3. Results

5,976 participants over the course of two months at a subscriber count of 588,488 (total participant ratio of slightly >1%)

3.1 General Demographics

5,976 participants in total

Age group

Age group Participants # Percentage
18 or younger 491 8.22%
19 to 24 1820 30.46%
25 to 29 1660 27.78%
30 to 34 1107 18.52%
35 to 39 509 8.52%
40 to 44 191 3.20%
45 to 49 91 1.52%
50 to 54 54 0.90%
55 to 59 29 0.49%
60 to 64 15 0.25%
65 to 69 4 0.07%
70 to 74 2 0.03%
75 or older 3 0.05%
84.97% of the sub is under the age of 35.

Gender and Gender Identity

4,583 participants out of 5,976 (71.54%) were assigned the gender of female at birth, 1,393 (23.31%) were assigned the gender of male at birth. Today, 4,275 (70.4%) participants identify themselves as female, 1,420 (23.76%) as male, 239 (4.00%) as non binary and 42 (0.7%) as other (from lack of other options).

Sexual Orientation

Sexual Orientation Participants # Percentage
Asexual 373 6.24%
Bisexual 1,421 23.78%
Heterosexual 3,280 54.89%
Homosexual 271 4.53%
It's fluid 196 3.28%
Other 95 1.59%
Pansexual 340 5.69%

Birth Location

Because the list contains over 120 countries, we'll show the top 20 countries:
Country of birth Participants # Percentage
United States 3,547 59.35%
Canada 439 7.35%
United Kingdom 414 6.93%
Australia 198 3.31%
Germany 119 1.99%
Netherlands 72 1.20%
France 68 1.14%
Poland 66 1.10%
India 59 0.99%
Mexico 49 0.82%
New Zealand 47 0.79%
Brazil 44 0.74%
Sweden 43 0.72%
Philippines 39 0.65%
Finland 37 0.62%
Russia 34 0.57%
Ireland 33 0.55%
Denmark 31 0.52%
Norway 30 0.50%
Belgium 28 0.47%
90.31% of the participants were born in these countries.

Ethnicity

That one was difficult for many reasons and didn't encompass all possibilities simply from lack of knowledge.
Ethnicity Participants # Percentage
Caucasian / White 4,583 76.69%
Hispanic / Latinx 332 5.56%
Multiracial 188 3.15%
East Asian 168 2.81%
Biracial 161 2.69%
African Descent / Black 155 2.59%
Indian / South Asian 120 2.01%
Other 83 1.39%
Jewish (the ethnicity, not the religion) 65 1.09%
Arab / Near Eastern / Middle Eastern 40 0.67%
American Indian or Alaskan Native 37 0.62%
Pacific Islander 24 0.40%
Aboriginal / Australian 20 0.33%

3.2 Education Level

5,976 participants in total

Current Level of Education

Highest Current Level of Education Participants # Percentage
Bachelor's degree 2061 34.49%
Some college / university 1309 21.90%
Master's degree 754 12.62%
Graduated high school / GED 721 12.06%
Associate's degree 350 5.86%
Trade / Technical / Vocational training 239 4.00%
Did not complete high school 238 3.98%
Professional degree 136 2.28%
Doctorate degree 130 2.18%
Post Doctorate 30 0.50%
Did not complete elementary school 8 0.13%

Future Education Plans

Educational Aims Participants # Percentage
I'm good where I am right now 1,731 28.97%
Master's degree 1,384 23.16%
Bachelor's degree 1,353 22.64%
Doctorate degree 639 10.69%
Vocational / Trade / Technical training 235 3.93%
Professional degree 214 3.58%
Post Doctorate 165 2.76%
Associate's degree 164 2.74%
Graduate high school / GED 91 1.52%
Of our 5,976 participants, a total of 1,576 (26.37%) returned to higher education after a break of 3+ years, the other 4,400 (73.76%) did not.
Degree (Major) Participants # Percentage
I don't have a degree or a major 1,010 16.90%
Other 580 9.71%
Health Sciences 498 8.33%
Engineering 455 7.61%
Information and Communication Technologies 428 7.16%
Arts and Music 403 6.74%
Social Sciences 361 6.04%
Business 313 5.24%
Life Sciences 311 5.20%
Literature and Languages 255 4.27%
Humanities 230 3.85%
Fundamental and Applied Sciences 174 2.91%
Teaching and Education Sciences 174 2.91%
Communication 142 2.38%
Law 132 2.21%
Economics and Politics 101 1.69%
Finance 94 1.57%
Social Sciences and Social Action 84 1.41%
Environment and Sustainable Development 70 1.17%
Marketing 53 0.89%
Administration and Management Sciences 52 0.87%
Environmental Planning and Design 24 0.40%
Fashion 18 0.30%
Theology and Religious Sciences 14 0.23%
A number of you commented in the free-form field at the end of the survey, that your degree was not present and that it wasn't related to any of the listed ones. We will try to mitigate this in the next survey!

3.3 Career and Finances

Out of the 5,976 participants, 2,199 (36.80%) work in the field they majored in, 953 (15.95%) graduated but do not work in their original field. 1,645 (27.53%) are still studying. The remaining 1,179 (19.73%) are either retired, currently unemployed or out of the workforce for unspecified reasons.
The top 10 industries our participants are working in are:
Industry Participants # Percentage
Health Care and Social Assistance 568 9.50%
Retail 400 6.69%
Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation 330 5.52%
College, University, and Adult Education 292 4.89%
Government and Public Administration 258 4.32%
Finance and Insurance 246 4.12%
Hotel and Food Services 221 3.70%
Scientific or Technical Services 198 3.31%
Software 193 3.23%
Information Services and Data Processing 169 2.83%
*Note that "other", "I'm a student" and "currently unemployed" have been disgregarded for this part of the evaluation.
Out of the 4,477 participants active in the workforce, the majority (1,632 or 36.45%) work between 40-50 hours per week, 34.73% (1,555) are working 30-40 hours weekly. Less than 6% work >50 h per week, and 23.87% (1,024 participants) less than 30 hours.
718 or 16.04% are taking over managerial responsibilities (ranging from Jr. to Sr. Management); 247 (5.52%) are self employed or partners.
On a scale of 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest), the overwhelming majority (4,009 or 67.09%) indicated that career plays a very important role in their lives, attributing a score of 7 and higher.
Only 663 (11.09%) gave it a score below 4, indicating a low importance.
The importance of climbing the career ladder is very evenly distributed across all participants and ranges in a harmonized 7-12% range for each of the 10 steps of importance.
23.71% (1,417) of the participants are making extra income with a hobby or side job.
From the 5,907 participants not already retired, the overwhelming majority of 3,608 (61.11%) does not actively seek early retirement. From those who are, most (1,024 / 17.34%) want to do so between 55-64; 7 and 11% respectively in the age brackets before or after. Less than 3.5% are looking for retirement below 45 years of age.
1,127 participants decided not to disclose their income brackets. The remaining 4,849 are distributed as follows:
Income Participants # Percentage
$0 to $14,999 1,271 26.21%
$15,000 to $29,999 800 16.50%
$30,000 to $59,999 1,441 29.72%
$60,000 to $89,999 731 15.08%
$90,000 to $119,999 300 6.19%
$120,000 to $149,999 136 2.80%
$150,000 to $179,999 67 1.38%
$180,000 to $209,999 29 0.60%
$210,000 to $239,999 22 0.45%
$240,000 to $269,999 15 0.31%
$270,000 to $299,999 5 0.10%
$300,000 or more 32 0.66%

3.4 Child Status

5,976 participants in total
94.44% of the participants (5,644) would call themselves "childfree" (as opposed to 5.56% of the participants who would not call themselves childfree. However, only 68.51% of the participants (4,094) do not have children and do not want them in any capacity at any point of the future. The other 31.49% have a varying degree of indecision, child wanting or child having on their own or their (future) spouse's part.
The 4,094 participants were made to participate in the following sections of the survey.

3.5 Current Location

4,094 childfree participants in total

Current Location

There were more than 200 options of country, so we are showing the top 10 CF countries.
Current Location Participants # Percentage
United States 2,495 60.94%
United Kingdom 331 8.09%
Canada 325 7.94%
Australia 146 3.57%
Germany 90 2.20%
Netherlands 66 1.61%
France 43 1.05%
Sweden 40 0.98%
New Zealand 33 0.81%
Poland 33 0.81%
The Top 10 amounts to 87.98% of the childfree participants' current location.

Current Location Qualification

These participants would describe their current city, town or neighborhood as:
Qualification Participants # Percentage
Urban 1,557 38.03%
Suburban 1,994 48.71%
Rural 543 13.26%

Tolerance to "Alternative Lifestyles" in Current Location

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3

3.6 Religion and Spirituality

4094 childfree participants in total

Faith Originally Raised In

There were more than 50 options of faith, so we aimed to show the top 10 most chosen beliefs..
Faith Participants # Percentage
Christianity 2,624 64.09%
Atheism 494 12.07%
None (≠ Atheism. Literally, no notion of spirituality or religion in the upbringing) 431 10.53%
Agnosticism 248 6.06%
Judaism 63 1.54%
Other 45 1.10%
Hinduism 42 1.03%
Islam 40 0.98%
Buddhism 24 0.59%
Paganism 14 0.34%
This top 10 amounts to 98.3% of the 4,094 childfree participants.

Current Faith

There were more than 50 options of faith, so we aimed to show the top 10 most chosen beliefs:
Faith Participants # Percentage
Atheism 2,276 55.59%
Agnosticism 829 20.25%
Christianity 343 8.38%
Other 172 4.20%
Paganism 100 2.44%
Satanism 67 1.64%
Spiritualism 55 1.34%
Witchcraft 54 1.32%
Buddhism 43 1.05%
Judaism 30 0.73%
This top 10 amounts to 96.95% of the participants.

Level of Current Religious Practice

Level Participants # Percentage
Wholly secular / Non religious 3045 74.38%
Identify with religion, but don't practice strictly 387 9.45%
Lapsed / Not serious / In name only 314 7.67%
Observant at home only 216 5.28%
Observant at home. Church/Temple/Mosque/Etc. attendance 115 2.81%
Church/Temple/Mosque/Etc. attendance only 17 0.42%

Effect of Faith over Childfreedom

Figure 4

Effect of Childfreedom over Faith

Figure 5

3.7 Romantic and Sexual Life

4,094 childfree participants in total

Current Dating Situation

Status Participants # Percentage
Divorce 37 0.90
Engaged 215 5.25
Long term relationship, living together 758 18.51
Long term relationship, not living with together 502 12.26
Married 935 22.84
Other 69 1.69
Separated 10 0.24
Short term relationship 82 2.00
Single and dating around, but not looking for anything serious 234 5.72
Single and dating around, looking for something serious 271 6.62
Single and not looking 975 23.82
Widowed 6 0.15

Ethical Non-Monogamy

Non-monogamy (or nonmonogamy) is an umbrella term for every practice or philosophy of intimate relationship that does not strictly hew to the standards of monogamy, particularly that of having only one person with whom to exchange sex, love, and affection.
82.3% of the childfree participants do not practice ethical non-monogamy, as opposed to 17.7% who say they do.

Childfree Partner

Regarding to currently having a childfree or non childfree partner, excluding the 36.7% of childfree participants who said they do not have a partner at the moment. For this question only, only 2591 childfree participants are considered.
Partner Participants # Percentage
Childfree partner 2105 81.2%
Non childfree partner 404 9.9%
More than one partner; all childfree 53 1.3%
More than one partner; some childfree 24 0.9%
More than one partner; none childfree 5 0.2%

Dating a Single Parent

Would the childfree participants be willing to date a single parent?
Answer Participants # Percentage
No, I'm not interested in single parents and their ties to parenting life 3693 90.2
Yes, but only if it's a short term arrangement of some sort 139 3.4
Yes, whether for long term or short term, but with some conditions 161 3.9
Yes, whether for long term or short term, with no conditions 101 2.5

3.8 Childhood and Family Life

On a scale from 1 (very unhappy) to 10 (very happy), how would you rate your childhood?
Answer Participants # Percentage
1 154 3.8%
2 212 5.2%
3 433 10.6%
4 514 12.6%
5 412 10.1%
6 426 10.4%
7 629 15.4%
8 704 17.2%
9 357 8.7%
10 253 6.2%

3.9 Sterilization

4,094 childfree participants in total
Sterilization Status Participants # Percentage
No, I am not sterilized and, for medical, practical or other reasons, I do not need to be 687 16.8
No. However, I've been approved for the procedure and I'm waiting for the date to arrive 119 2.9
No. I am not sterilized and don't want to be 585 14.3
No. I want to be sterilized but I have started looking for a doctor (doctor shopping) 328 8.0
No. I want to be sterilized but I haven't started doctor shopping yet 1896 46.3
Yes. I am sterilized 479 11.7

Already Sterilized

479 sterilized childfree participants in total

Age when starting doctor shopping or addressing issue with doctor

Age group Participants # Percentage
18 or younger 37 7.7%
19 to 24 131 27.3%
25 to 29 159 33.2%
30 to 34 92 19.2%
35 to 39 47 9.8%
40 to 44 9 1.9%
45 to 49 1 0.2%
50 to 54 1 0.2%
55 or older 2 0.4%

Age at the time of sterilization

Age group Participants # Percentage
18 or younger 4 0.8%
19 to 24 83 17.3%
25 to 29 181 37.8%
30 to 34 121 25.3%
35 to 39 66 13.8%
40 to 44 17 3.5%
45 to 49 3 0.6%
50 to 54 1 0.2%
55 or older 3 0.6%

Elapsed time between requesting procedure and undergoing procedure

Time Participants # Percentage
Less than 3 months 280 58.5
Between 3 and 6 months 78 16.3
Between 6 and 9 months 20 4.2
Between 9 and 12 months 10 2.1
Between 12 and 18 months 17 3.5
Between 18 and 24 months 9 1.9
Between 24 and 30 months 6 1.3
Between 30 and 36 months 4 0.8
Between 3 and 5 years 19 4.0
Between 5 and 7 years 9 1.9
More than 7 years 27 5.6

How many doctors refused at first, before finding one who would accept?

Doctor # Participants # Percentage
None. The first doctor I asked said yes 340 71.0%
One. The second doctor I asked said yes 56 11.7%
Two. The third doctor I asked said yes 37 7.7%
Three. The fourth doctor I asked said yes 15 3.1%
Four. The fifth doctor I asked said yes 8 1.7%
Five. The sixth doctor I asked said yes 5 1.0%
Six. The seventh doctor I asked said yes 4 0.8%
Seven. The eighth doctor I asked said yes 1 0.2%
Eight. The ninth doctor I asked said yes 1 0.2%
I asked more than 10 doctors before finding one who said yes 12 2.5%

Approved, not Sterilized Yet

119 approved but not yet sterilised childfree participants in total. Owing to the zero participants who were approved but not yet sterilised in the 45+ age group in the 2018 survey, these categories were removed from the 2019 survey.

Age when starting doctor shopping or addressing issue with doctor

Age group Participants # Percentage
18 or younger 11 9.2%
19 to 24 42 35.3%
25 to 29 37 31.1%
30 to 34 23 19.3%
35 to 39 5 4.2%
40 to 45 1 0.8%

How many doctors refused at first, before finding one who would accept?

Doctor # Participants # Percentage
None. The first doctor I asked said yes 77 64.7%
One. The second doctor I asked said yes 12 10.1%
Two. The third doctor I asked said yes 12 10.1%
Three. The fourth doctor I asked said yes 5 4.2%
Four. The fifth doctor I asked said yes 2 1.7%
Five. The sixth doctor I asked said yes 4 3.4%
Six. The seventh doctor I asked said yes 1 0.8%
Seven. The eighth doctor I asked said yes 1 0.8%
Eight. The ninth doctor I asked said yes 0 0.0%
I asked more than ten doctors before finding one who said yes 5 4.2%

How long between starting doctor shopping and finding a doctor who said "Yes"?

Time Participants # Percentage
Less than 3 months 65 54.6%
3 to 6 months 13 10.9%
6 to 9 months 9 7.6%
9 to 12 months 1 0.8%
12 to 18 months 2 1.7%
18 to 24 months 2 1.7%
24 to 30 months 1 0.8%
30 to 36 months 1 0.8%
3 to 5 years 8 6.7%
5 to 7 years 6 5.0%
More than 7 years 11 9.2%

Age when receiving green light for sterilization procedure?

Age group Participants # Percentage
18 or younger 1 0.8%
19 to 24 36 30.3%
25 to 29 45 37.8%
30 to 34 27 22.7%
35 to 39 9 7.6%
40 to 44 1 0.8%

Not Sterilized Yet But Looking

328 searching childfree participants in total

How many doctors did you ask so far?

Doctor # Participants # Percentage
1 204 62.2%
2 61 18.6%
3 29 8.8%
4 12 3.7%
5 7 2.1%
6 6 1.8%
7 1 0.3%
8 1 0.3%
9 1 0.3%
More than 10 6 1.8%

How long have you been searching so far?

Time Participants # Percentage
Less than 3 months 117 35.7%
3 to 6 months 44 13.4%
6 to 9 months 14 4.3%
9 to 12 months 27 8.2%
12 to 18 months 18 5.5%
18 to 24 months 14 4.3%
24 to 30 months 17 5.2%
30 to 36 months 9 2.7%
3 to 5 years 35 10.7%
5 to 7 years 11 3.4%
More than 7 years 22 6.7%

At what age did you start searching?

Age group Participants # Percentage
18 or younger 50 15.2%
19 to 24 151 46.0%
25 to 29 86 26.2%
30 to 34 31 9.5%
35 to 39 7 2.1%
40 to 44 2 0.6%
45 to 54 1 0.3%

3.10 Childfreedom

4,094 childfree participants in total
Only 1.1% of the childfree participants (46 out of 4094) literally owns a jetski, but 46.1% of the childfree participants (1889 out of 4094) figuratively owns a jetski. A figurative jetski is an expensive material possession that purchasing would have been almost impossible had you had children.

Primary Reason to Not Have Children

Reason Participants # Percentage
Aversion towards children ("I don't like children") 1222 29.8
Childhood trauma 121 3.0
Current state of the world 87 2.1
Environmental (it includes overpopulation) 144 3.5
Eugenics ("I have "bad genes" ") 62 1.5
Financial 145 3.5
I already raised somebody else who isn't my child 45 1.1
Lack of interest towards parenthood ("I don't want to raise children") 1718 42.0
Maybe interested for parenthood, but not suited for parenthood 31 0.8
Medical ("I have a condition that makes conceiving/bearing/birthing children difficult, dangerous or lethal") 52 1.3
Other 58 1.4
Philosophical / Moral (e.g.: antinatalism) 136 3.3
Tokophobia (aversion/fear of pregnancy and/or chidlbirth) 273 6.7

4. Discussion

Section 1 : General Demographics

The demographics remain largely consistent with the 2018 survey. 85% of the participants are under 35, compared with 87.5% of the subreddit in the 2018 survey. 71.54% of the subreddit identify as female, compared with 70.4% in the 2018 survey. This is in contrast to the overall membership of Reddit, estimated at 74% male according to Reddit's Wikipedia page [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reddit#Users_and_moderators]. There was a marked drop in the ratio of members who identify as heterosexual, from 67.7% in the 2018 survey to 54.89% in the 2019 survey. Ethnicity wise, 77% of members identified as primarily Caucasian, a slight drop from the 2018 survey, where 79.6% of members identified as primarily Caucasian.
Further research may be useful to explore the unusually high female membership of /childfree and the potential reasons for this. It is possible that the results are skewed towards those more inclined to complete a survey.
In the 2018 survey the userbase identified the following missing ethicities:
This has been rectified in the current 2019 survey.

Section 2 : Education level

As it did in the 2018 survey, this section highlights the stereotype of childfree people as being well educated. 4% of participants did not complete high school, which is a slight increase from the 2018 survey, where 3.1% of participants did not graduate high school. This could potentially be explained by the slightly higher percentage of participants under 18. 5.6% of participants were under 18 at the time of the 2018 survey, and 8.2% of participants were under 18 at the time of the 2019 survey.
At the 2019 survey, the highest percentage of responses under the: What is your degree/major? question fell under "I don't have a degree or a major" (16.9%) and "other" (9.71%). However, of the participants who were able to select a degree and/or major, the most popular responses were:
Response Participants # Percentage
Health Sciences 498 8.33%
Engineering 455 7.61%
Information and Communication Technologies 428 7.16%
Arts and Music 403 6.74%
Social Sciences 361 6.04%
Compared to the 2018 survey, health sciences have overtaken engineering, however the top 5 majors remain the same. There is significant diversity in the subreddit with regards to chosen degree/major.

Section 3 : Career and Finances

The highest percentage of participants (17.7%) listed themselves as a student. However, of those currently working, significant diversity in chosen field of employment was noted. This is consistent with the 2018 survey. The highest percentage of people working in one of the fields listed remains in Healthcare and Social Services. This is slightly down from the 2018 survey (9.9%) to 9.5%.
One of the stereotypes of the childfree is of wealth. However this is not demonstrated in the survey results. 72.4% of participants earn under $60,000 USD per annum, while 87.5% earn under $90,000 per annum. 26.2% are earning under $15,000 per annum. The results remain largely consistent with the 2018 survey. 1127 participants, or 19% chose not to disclose this information. It is possible that this may have skewed the results if a significant proportion of these people were our high income earners, but impossible to explore.
A majority of our participants work between 30 and 50 hours per week (71.2%) which is markedly increased from the 2018 survey, where 54.6% of participants worked between 30 and 50 hours per week.

Section 4 : Child Status

This section solely existed to sift the childfree from the fencesitters and the non childfree in order to get answers only from the childfree. Childfree, as it is defined in the subreddit, is "I do not have children nor want to have them in any capacity (biological, adopted, fostered, step- or other) at any point in the future." 68.5% of participants actually identify as childfree, slightly up from the 2018 survey, where 66.3% of participants identified as childfree. This is suprising in reflection of the overall reputation of the subreddit across reddit, where the subreddit is often described as an "echo chamber".

Section 5 : Current Location

The location responses are largely similar to the 2018 survey with a majority of participants living in a suburban and urban area. 86.7% of participants in the 2019 survey live in urban and suburban regions, with 87.6% of participants living in urban and suburban regions in the 2018 survey. There is likely a multifactorial reason for this, encompassing the younger, educated skew of participants and the easier access to universities and employment, and the fact that a majority of the population worldwide localises to urban centres. There may be an element of increased progressive social viewpoints and identities in urban regions, however this would need to be explored further from a sociological perspective to draw any definitive conclusions.
A majority of our participants (60.9%) live in the USA. The United Kingdom (8.1%), Canada (7.9%), Australia (3.6%) and Germany (2.2%) encompass the next 4 most popular responses. Compared to the 2018 survey, there has been a slight drop in the USA membership (64%), United Kingdom membership (7.3%) Canadian membership (8.1%), Australian membership (3.8%). There has been a slight increase in German membership, up from 1.7%. This may reflect a growing globalisation of the childfree concept.

Section 6 : Religion and Spirituality

A majority of participants were raised Christian (64.1%) however the majority are currently aetheist (55.6%) or agnostic (20.25%). This is consistent with the 2018 survey results.
A majority of participants (62.8%) rated religion as "not at all influential" to the childfree choice. This is consistent with the 2018 survey where 60.9% rated religion as "not at all influential". Despite the high percentage of participants who identify as aetheist or agnostic, this does not appear to be related to or have an impact on the childfree choice.

Section 7 : Romantic and Sexual Life

60.7% of our participants are in a relationship at the time of the survey. This is an almost identical result to the 2018 survey, where 60.6% of our participants were in a relationship. A notable proportion of our participants are listed as single and not looking (23.8%) which is consistent with the 2018 survey. Considering the frequent posts seeking dating advice as a childfree person, it is surprising that such a high proportion of the participants are not actively seeking out a relationship.
Participants that practice ethical non-monogamy are unusual (17.7%) and this result is consistent with the results of the 2018 survey. Despite the reputuation for childfree people to live an unconventional lifestyle, this finding suggests that a majority of our participants are monogamous.
84.2% of participants with partners of some kind have at least one childfree partner. This is consistent with the often irreconcilable element of one party desiring children and the other wishing to abstain from having children.

Section 8 : Childhood and Family Life

Overall, the participants skew towards a happier childhood.

Section 9 : Sterilization

While just under half of our participants wish to be sterilised, 46.3%, only 11.7% have been successful in achieving sterilisation. This is likely due to overarching resistance from the medical profession however other factors such as the logistical elements of surgery and the cost may also contribute. This is also a decrease from the percentage of participants sterilised in the 2018 survey (14.8%). 31.1% of participants do not wish to be or need to be sterilised suggesting a partial element of satisfaction from temporary birth control methods or non-necessity from no sexual activity.
Of the participants who did achieve sterilisation, a majority began the search between 19 and 29, with the highest proportion being in the 25-29 age group (33.2%) This is a drop from the 2018 survey where 37.9% of people who started the search were between 25-29.
The majority of participants who sought out and were successful at achieving sterilisation, were again in the 25-29 age group (37.8%). This is consistent with the 2018 survey results.
Over half of the participants who were sterilised had the procedure completed in less than 3 months (58.5%). This is a decline from the number of participants who achieved sterilisation in 3 months in the 2018 survey (68%). The proportion of participants who have had one or more doctors refuse to perform the procedure has stayed consistent between the two surveys.

Section 10 : Childfreedom

The main reasons for people chosing the childfree lifestyle are a lack of interest towards parenthood and an aversion towards children. Of the people surveyed 63.8% are pet owners, suggesting that this lack of interest towards parenthood does not necessarily mean a lack of interest in all forms of caretaking. The community skews towards a dislike of children overall which correlates well with the 81.4% of users choosing "no, I do not have, did not use to have and will not have a job that makes me heavily interact with children on a daily basis" in answer to, "do you have a job that heavily makes you interact with children on a daily basis?".
A vast majority of the subreddit identifes as pro-choice (94.5%). This is likely due to a high level of concern about bodily autonomy and forced parenthood. However only 70% support financial abortion for the non-pregnant person in a relationship to sever all financial and parental ties with a child.
45.9% identify as feminist, however many users prefer to identify with egalitarianism or are unsure. Only 8% firmly do not identify as a feminist.
Most of our users realised that did not want children young. 60% of participants knew they did not want children by the age of 18, with 96% of users realising this by age 30. This correlates well with the age distribution of participants. Despite this early realisation of our childfree stance, 80.4% of participants have been "bingoed" at some stage in their lives. Only 13% of participants are opposed to parents making posts on this subreddit.
Bonus section: The Subreddit
In light of the "State of the Subreddit" survey from 2018, some of the questions from this survey were added to the current Subreddit Survey 2019.
By and large our participants were lurkers (66.17%). Our participants were divided on their favourite flairs with 33.34% selecting "I have no favourite". The next most favourite flair was "Rant", at 20.47%. Our participants were similarly divided on their least favourite flair, with 64.46% selecting "I have no least favourite". Potentially concerningly were the 42.01% of participants who selected "I have never participated on this sub", suggesting a disparity between members who contributed to this survey and members who actually participate in the subreddit. To further address this, next year's survey will clarify the "never participated" option by specifying that "never participated" means "never up/downvoting, reading posts or commenting" in addition to never posting.
A small minority of the survey participants (6.18%) selected "yes" to allowing polite, well meaning lectures. An even smaller minority (2.76%) selected "yes" to allowing angry, trolling lectures. In response to this lectures remain not tolerated, and removed on sight or on report.
Almost half of our users (49.95%) support the use of terms such as breeder, mombie/moo, daddict/duh on the subreddit, with a further 22.52% supporting use of these terms in context of bad parents only. In response to this use of the above and similar terms to describe parents remains permitted on ths subreddit.
55.3% of users support the use of terms to describe children such as crotchfruit on the subreddit, with a further 17.42% of users supporting the use of this and similar terms in context of bad children only. In response to this use of the above and similar terms to describe children remains permitted on ths subreddit.
56.03% of participants support allowing parents to post, with a further 28.77% supporting parent posts dependent on context. In response to this, parent posts will continue to be allowed on the subreddit. Furthermore 66.19% of participants support parents and non childfree making "I need your advice" posts, with a further 21.37% supporting these dependent on context. In light of these results we have decided to implement a new "regret" flair to better sort out parents from fencesitters, which will be trialed until the next subreddit survey due to concern from some of our members. 64.92% of participants support parents making "I support you guys" posts. Therefore, these will continue to be allowed.
71.03% of participants support under 18's who are childfree participating in the subreddit. Therefore we will continue to allow under 18's that stay within the overall Reddit age requirement.
We asked participants their opinion on moving Rants and Brants to a stickied weekly thread. Slightly less than half (49.73%) selected leaving them as they are in their own posts. In light of the fact that Rants are one of the participant's favourite flairs, we will leave them as they are.
There was divide among participants as to whether "newbie" questions should be removed. An even spread was noted among participants who selected remove and those who selected to leave them as is. We have therefore decided to leave them as is.

5. Conclusion

Thank you to our participants who contributed to the survey. To whoever commented, "Do I get a donut?", no you do not, but you get our appreciation for pushing through all of the questions!
Overall there have been few significant changes in the community from 2018.

Thank you also for all of your patience!

submitted by CFmoderator to childfree [link] [comments]

101% Accurate Trading System Best Indicator For Binary Trading Free Download 2020 Binary Options 101 - YouTube Binary Options 101 Binary Starter Kit Binary Options 101 Overview

NADEX 101 Course - Learn NADEX NADEX is a different beast! You can trade in and out of a binary option here. On 60% percent winning system of of 10 trades with $500 per trade position size: A SpotOption type broker at 70% payout gives you a net profit of $100. Binary Options Academy for Beginners – Binary Option Trading 101 . Binary Options School For Beginners. Education and experience are the main constituents that ensure success in any venture. The same holds true for binary options trading as well, unless you are among the lucky few individuals who can make a considerable amount of profits out Binary options work according to a similar mechanism but are much simpler to trade with, and they partly release you of the troubles of buying and selling. The thing with binary options is that you solely need to predict the performance of a certain asset, in other words, predict whether their value will rise or fall, over a given time frame Binary options are simply a financial instrument that give a trader to purchase an option based on how the traded understands the movement of a price of an underlying asset. through the super binary options 101 course I can guide you into the correct mentality for successful day trading. and the right mentality is 90% of the game for winning in day trading. Discover How Becoming a Good Binary Options Trader Can Be The Single Most Important Thing You Do for Becoming a Great Day Trader, Swing Trader and Trend Trader

[index] [7353] [11515] [28131] [11362] [15024] [29574] [9266] [17239] [17179] [15061]

101% Accurate Trading System Best Indicator For Binary Trading Free Download 2020

Forex and Binary options trading carry a high level of risk and can result in the loss of all your fund.You should never invest money that you cannot afford to lose.) ... Binary trading 101% ... This is a beginners guide series on how to trade binary options successfully. An option in finance is the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a specific price on a specific ... New binary options 101. Updated for 2015 and beyond. More info http://binaryoptionsauthority.com/binary-options-starter-kit/ Binary Options 101 - YouTube. http://binarytoday.com - In this video I go over the different binary options types of trades, the platform used for trading and show some examples. Binary Options (BO301) - 60 Second Binary Options (Part 1) - Duration: 33:28. Financial Trading School 43,916 views. 33:28. How to Invest in the Stock Market for Beginners - Duration: 17:54.

Flag Counter